Tuesday, 19 May 2015

HISTAMINE FISH POISONING Histamine fish poisoning is among the most common toxicities related to fish ingestion. It is due to the consumption of inadequately preserved and improperly refrigerated fish. It resembles an allergic reaction but is actually caused by bacterially generated toxins in the fish's tissues. Toxin production occurs when inadequate refrigeration allows the multiplication of bacteria that contain histidine decarboxylase, which converts amino acid histidine in the fish tissues to histamine. Subsequent cooking, smoking, or canning of the fish does not eliminate the histamine. Affected fish do not have a distinctive appearance or odor. Occasionally, fish with higher histamine concentrations may have a pungent, peppery taste or bitter taste. Typical manifestations of histamine fish poisoning include skin flushing on the upper half of the body, rash, gastrointestinal (GI) complaints, and throbbing headache. The manifestations in details include Erythema of the face, neck, and upper torso Headache (severe and throbbing) Dysphagia Nausea and vomiting Abdominal cramps or epigastric pain Diarrhea Palpitations Pruritus Dizziness Dry mouth Angioedema Sense of anxiety or unease Respiratory distress and chest tightness (rare) Loss of vision (rare). Antihistamines such as Loratidine usually relieve the symptoms and support histamine as the causative agent. In severe cases, patients may require treatment for bronchospasm or hypotension (a decrease in blood pressure below normal).

Wednesday, 21 August 2013


Want to ace that next test? Try taking a mid-afternoon siesta.
While the findings are preliminary, new research raises the prospect that sleep, specifically a lengthy afternoon nap, prepares the brain to remember things. Think of it as similar to rebooting a computer to get it to work more smoothly.
"Sleep is not just for the body. It's very much for the brain," said study author Matthew Walker, an assistant professor at the University of California at Berkeley.
Walker and colleagues divided 39 young adults into two groups. At noon, all the participants took part in a memory exercise that required them to remember faces and link them with names. Then the researchers took part in another memory exercise at 6 p.m., after 20 had napped for 100 minutes during the break.
Those who remained awake performed about 10 percent worse on the tests than those who napped, Walker said.
There's one more twist: People's ability to learn declines about 10 percent between noon and 6 p.m. normally, but the nappers were able to negate that decline.
The structure of the study suggests that a phase of non-dreaming sleep that the nappers went through is boosting memory, he said.
"This is further evidence that sleep plays a critical role in the processing of memories," he said. "It provides more evidence that it's not just important to sleep after learning, but you need it before learning to prepare the brain for laying down information."
But it's important to sleep long enough to give the brain an opportunity to go through various cycles of sleep, he said. Using electroencephalogram tests to track electrical activity in the brain, the researchers determined that memory-refreshing seems to occur between deep sleep and the dream state, called rapid eye movement or REM.
"The brain's ability to soak up information is not always stable," Walker said. "It seems as though the brain's capacity may be a little like a sponge. It may get waterlogged with continued learning throughout the day."
Jessica Payne, an assistant professor at the University of Notre Dame, said the study findings "really add to something we already know about why sleep is important."
One message from the research, she said, is that sleep can be valuable for "students and for people who are struggling with their memory because they're aging."
Other recent research has suggested that sleep can help you think more creatively, have better long-term memory and preserve important memories.

Saturday, 17 August 2013


1) Keep blood pressure under check
Bananas are very rich in potassium yet almost completely devoid of sodium, and as such very well suitable to preventing high levels of blood pressure from overcoming the body. Blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors and indicator for heart disease.

An average banana contains up to 500 milligrammes of potassium and around 1 milligramme of sodium. Since potassium has a lowering effect on blood pressure while sodium has a strengthening effect, this is a wonderful ratio to consume on a daily basis.

 2)Cut down risk of stroke
A recent study suggests that eating three bananas a day cuts risk for stroke by 21 per cent. What is in a banana? The miracle ingredient is potassium, which reduces blood pressure, thus combating a leading cause of stroke.

3) Promote bone health.
Potassium may counteract the increased urinary calcium loss caused by the high-salt diets, thus preventing bones from thinning out at a fast rate. This, according to University of Maryland Medical Centre and University of Kansas Medical Centre, reduces the risk of osteoporosis.

4) Protect eyesight
Fruits like banana are important for keeping good sight. A 2004 study, published in the Archives of Ophthalmology, indicated that eating three or more servings of fruit per day may lower your risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in older adults, by 36 per cent, compared to persons who consume less than 1.5 servings of fruit daily.

5)Supports healthy kidney
Research in the International Journal of Cancer suggests that regular, moderated consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, especially bananas, can be kidney-protective. The result of a large population based prospective study of 61,000 women aged 40 to 76, showed that women eating more than 75 servings of fruits and vegetables per month cut their risk of kidney cancer 40 per cent.

Also, according to the study in the Internal Journal of Cancer, women halved their risk of developing kidney problem by eating bananas compared to those who did not eat this fruit.

6)Ease depression
People suffering from depression, feel much better after eating a banana. Bananas contain Tryptophan, a type of protein that the body converts into serotonin which helps the body to relax, improve mood and generally make happier. Studies show that bananas are also helpful in reducing stress levels.

7)Treat anaemia
Experiencing anaemia, try banana rather than blood forming. High in iron, bananas can stimulate the production of haemoglobin in the blood and so help in cases of anaemia.

Reduces constipation
Are you suffering from constipation? The best solution to constipation is eating a banana a day. Bananas are rich in fibre that can help to restore normal bowel action, and overcome constipation without resorting to laxatives. A single serving (one medium-sized banana) contains 16 per cent of the daily recommended dietary fibre intake for a normal adult.

8) Soothe heart burn
If suffering from heart burn, try eating a banana for its soothing relief. Bananas have a natural antacid effect in the body.

9) Prevents morning sickness
Besides, their calming properties help combat morning sickness, snacking on bananas between meals can help in keeping blood sugar levels up.

10) Ease peptic ulcers
Banana is the only raw fruit that can be eaten without distress in people with severe intestinal disorders because of its soft texture and smoothness. Eating a raw banana also neutralises acidity and reduces irritation by coating the lining of the stomach. Aside this, other substances in bananas known as protease inhibitors get rid of bacteria in the stomach that produces stomach ulcers. 

Medical experts say that a simple concoction of banana and milk can help to suppress acid secretion considerably, thus protecting against stomach and ulcer damage.

11) Mood enhancers
 Bananas contain tryptophan, one of the 20 amino acids which helps the body to produce serotonin - which has a calming effect on the brain (creates a stable mood) and acts as a mild sedative. The only way the body gets its dose of tryptophan is through diet. It does not produce it.

12) Morning sickness cure
In pregnancy, just shoving a banana in the mouth calms the queasy feeling, restores the blood glucose level and body temperature.

13) Quit smoking
Bananas can help minimize the effects of nicotine withdrawal bananas are rich potassium, magnesium and other vital vitamins present which give the brain a soothing whenever it screams for nicotine.

14) Effective in diarrhoea
In uncomfortable conditions like diarrhoea, electrolytes are drained out of the body, causing weakness. These electrolytes can be restocked with the help of potassium levels present in bananas.

15) Menstrual pains cure
Majority of the womenfolk take pills to reduce menstrual pains. Rather than taking these pain killers eat a banana. Bananas are rich in vitamin B6 that helps in regulating blood glucose levels. This helps in balancing your overall mood and hence reduces menstrual pains.

16) Increase brain power
 A survey involving 200 students at a school in Middlesex, who were given bananas along with their normal diet for their breakfast, break and lunch proved that bananas increase brain power. The research indicated that potassium in bananas helped to increase their mental alertness and boost brain power.

Reduce itching of mosquito bites
Worried by an itching or swelling due to mosquito bites? Rather using these creams to reduce itching and swelling, use banana peels. Rub the itching or swelling area with the inside of banana peels to get a relief from mosquito bite itching or swelling.

17)Lower cholesterol
Pectin, a soluble fibre in banana facilitates reduction of cholesterol levels.  Expert based on findings from various studies say its water-soluble fibres such as pectin, psyllium, guar gum and beta-glucan effectively lower LDL Cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) without causing any kind of disturbance to HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol.

18) Reduce risk of cancer
Rich in antioxidants and dietary fibre, consumption of bananas reduce risk of various types of cancer especially bowel cancer.

19) Cure pile
The complexity involved in passing stools normally, known as piles, may lead to bleeding often times.  Since bananas help normal bowel function, they can help to cure piles.

20) Dispel effect of hangover
The nutrients in bananas combined with their ability to refuel the body’s vitamins make them a perfect option to dispel the effect of a hangover.  A combination of bananas blended with honey and yoghurt makes an excellent cure for hangover.

21) Support weight loss
Containing loads of fibre and low amounts of fat, bananas are easily digestible. Therefore, a diet consisting primarily of bananas does not make an obese person gain a few extra kilos.

22) Healthy Skin
Bananas are loaded with essential nutrients vital for a healthy skin. They contain high doses of vitamin C which helps production of collagen, a type of protein found in the skin. Also, vitamin C a potent antioxidant protects the body from attack of free radicals that cause premature ageing.  Conversely, bananas are a good source of vitamin B6 known as pyridoxine essential for promoting a healthy skin.

23) Aphrodisiac
This shapely and nutritious fruit is a complete meal, loaded with potassium, magnesium and B vitamins. It also contains chelating minerals and the bromelain enzyme, said to enhance the male libido — maybe that’s why Central Americans drink the sap of the red banana as an aphrodisiac, while Hindus regard it as a symbol of fertility.

 With high levels of potassium and vitamin B to increase sex hormone production in our bodies, bananas are very popular for an aphrodisiac. It is widely believed that the similar shape between a banana and a male penis is the main reason for the banana being on the aphrodisiac lists.

Like most fruits, the banana is a healthful food that can be eaten without any problem.  However, diabetics should consult with a physician or dietician to determine if bananas should be included in a diet that aims to reduce the consumption of carbohydrates.  Anyone with an allergy to bananas should also avoid the fruits to minimise the risk of an allergic reaction.

Wednesday, 29 May 2013


What causes burns?
You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There are 3 degrees of burns:
  • First-degree burns are red and painful. They swell a little. They turn white when you press on the skin. The skin over the burn may peel off after 1 or 2 days.
  • Second-degree burns are thicker burns, are very painful and typically produce blisters on the skin. The skin is very red or splotchy, and may be very swollen.
  • Third-degree burns cause damage to all layers of the skin. The burned skin looks white or charred. These burns may cause little or no pain because the nerves and tissue in the skin are damaged.
How long does it take for burns to heal?
  • First-degree burns usually heal in 3 to 6 days.
  • Second-degree burns usually heal in 2 to 3 weeks.
  • Third-degree burns usually take a very long time to heal.
How are burns treated?
The treatment depends on what kind of burn you have.
See a doctor if:
  • A first- or second-degree burn covers an area larger than 2 to 3 inches in diameter.
  • The burn is on your face, over a major joint (such as the knee or shoulder), on the hands, feet or genitals.
  • The burn is a third-degree burn, which requires immediate medical attention.
First-degree burn
Soak the burn in cool water for at least 5 minutes. The cool water helps reduce swelling by pulling heat away from the burned skin.
Treat the burn with a skin care product that protects and heals skin, such as aloe vera cream or an antibiotic ointment. You can wrap a dry gauze bandage loosely around the burn. This will protect the area and keep the air off of it.
Take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol), ibuprofen (some brand names: Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (brand name: Aleve), to help with the pain. Ibuprofen and naproxen will also help with swelling.
Second-degree burn
Soak the burn in cool water for 15 minutes. If the burned area is small, put cool, clean, wet cloths on the burn for a few minutes every day. Then put on an antibiotic cream, or other creams or ointments prescribed by your doctor. Cover the burn with a dry nonstick dressing (for example, Telfa) held in place with gauze or tape. Check with your doctor's office to make sure you are up-to-date on tetanus shots.
Change the dressing every day. First, wash your hands with soap and water. Then gently wash the burn and put antibiotic ointment on it. If the burn area is small, a dressing may not be needed during the day. Check the burn every day for signs of infection, such as increased pain, redness, swelling or pus. If you see any of these signs, see your doctor right away. To prevent infection, avoid breaking any blisters that form.
Burned skin itches as it heals. Keep your fingernails cut short and don't scratch the burned skin. The burned area will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should apply sunscreen to the area when you're outside.
Third-degree burn
For third-degree burns, go to the hospital right away. Don't take off any clothing that is stuck to the burn. Don't soak the burn in water or apply any ointment. If possible, raise the burned area above the level of the heart. You can cover the burn with a cool, wet sterile bandage or clean cloth until you receive medical assistance.
Is there anything I shouldn't do when treating a burn?
Do not put butter or oil on burns. Do not put ice or ice water directly on second- or third-degree burns. If blisters form over the burn, do not break them. These things can cause more damage to the skin.
What do I need to know about electrical and chemical burns?
A person who has an electrical burn (for example, from a power line) should go to the hospital right away. Electrical burns often cause serious injury to organs inside the body. This injury may not show on the skin.
A chemical burn should be flushed with large amounts of cool water. Take off any clothing or jewelry that has the chemical on it. Don't put anything on the burned area, such as antibiotic ointment. This might start a chemical reaction that could make the burn worse. You can wrap the burn with dry, sterile gauze or a clean cloth.
Seek medical attention immediately!!

Monday, 27 May 2013


Neurofibromas are soft, fleshy growths that occur on or under the skin, sometimes even deep within the body. These are harmless tumors; however, they can turn malignant or cancerous in rare cases.
What Are the Symptoms of Neurofibromas?
The symptoms of neurofibromas may vary, depending on the locations and the sizes of the tumors. Symptoms can include:
  • A painless, slow-growing mass
  • Occasional pain
  • Electric-like "shock" when the affected area is touched
  • Neurological problems if the tumor involves a major motor or sensory nerve or a nerve that is compressed between the tumor and a hard structure
How Are Neurofibromas Treated?
If the tumor is not causing any symptoms, no treatment is necessary. However, doctors may choose to surgically remove the neurofibroma if it is affecting a major nerve. In most cases, neurofibromas are treated successfully and do not recur.

Saturday, 25 May 2013


Keratosis pilaris (commonly called KP) appears as "chicken skin bumps" on the skin. These bumps usually appear on the upper arms and thighs. They also can appear on the cheeks, back, and buttocks. Keratosis pilaris, while unattractive, is harmless.
What Are the Symptoms of Keratosis Pilaris?
This disorder appears as small, rough bumps. The bumps are usually white or red, but do not itch or hurt. Keratosis pilaris is usually worse during the winter months or other times of low humidity when skin becomes dry. It also may worsen during pregnancy or after childbirth.
How Is Keratosis Pilaris Treated?
Although the condition may remain for years, it gradually improves before age 30 in most cases. Treatment of keratosis pilaris is not medically necessary; but, individuals with this condition may want to seek treatment for cosmetic reasons.
The initial treatment of keratosis pilaris should be intensive moisturizing. A cream such as AmLactin or LadHydrin can be applied after bathing, and then re-applied several times a day. Other treatments may include:
  • Medicated creams containing urea (Carmol-20) or alpha-hydroxy acids (Aqua Glycolic, Lacticare) applied twice daily
  • Efforts to unplug pores by taking long, hot soaking tub baths and then rubbing and exfoliating the areas with a coarse washcloth or stiff brush.
  •  Learn to Recognize Precancerous Skin Lesions

Thursday, 23 May 2013


Lipomas are subcutaneous soft tissue tumors that usually are slow-growing and are harmless. They have a soft, rubbery consistency. Lipomas tend to form on the trunk, shoulders, neck, but can appear elsewhere on the body.
What Are the Symptoms of Lipomas?
Lipomas can appear as solitary nodules or in groups. Most lipomas are less than 5 cm in diameter and have no symptoms, but they can cause pain when they compress nerves.

How Are Lipomas Treated?
Lipomas are not removed unless there is a cosmetic concern, a compression of surrounding structures, or an uncertain diagnosis. Lipomas generally do not infiltrate into surrounding tissue so they can be removed easily by excision.
An alternative to standard excision is to manually squeeze the lipoma through a small incision. This technique is useful in areas with thin dermis, such as the face and extremities. Liposuction-assisted lipectomy also can be used to remove large lipomas with minimal scarring